Sunday, August 1, 2010

Lesson 9





Contents:

         9.a Verbs
         9.b Numbers
         9.c Nouns & Adjectives
         9.d Sentences

9.a: Verbs

Let's learn 3 more verbs:

  • the root קנה [k.n.h.] means 'buy'.
  • the root רצה [r.tz.h.] means 'want'
  • the root שתה [sh.t.h.] means 'drink'.

Today we'll start learning an important group of verbs – the ones that have 'ה' as their 3rd root letter. There are a few minor differences in conjugation, as the ה sometimes changes into י or ת. Let's start with present forms:

  • הוּא קוֹנֵה [hu kone] - 'he buys', according to the standard XoXeX pattern
  • הִיא קוֹנַה [hi kona] - 'she buys', not the XoXeXet pattern we're used to
  • הֵם קוֹנִים [hem konim] - 'they (masc.) buy', almost the XoXXim – but the 3rd root letter ה drops
  • הֵן קוֹנוֹת [hen konot] - 'they (fem.) buy', almost the XoXXot – but the 3rd root letter ה drops
(Note that is only applies to roots ending in ה, not to those ending in ע or א)

Now let's learn 2 more verbs:

  • the root בנה [b.n.h.] means 'build'
  • the root פנה [p.n.h.] means 'turn'.

The infinitive form is also a bit different - 'ה' turns into ת, so that:

  • "to buy" is לִקנוֹת - liknot
  • "to want" is לִרצוֹת - lirtzot
  • "to drink" is לִשתוֹת - lishtot
  • "to build" is לִבנוֹת - livnot
  • "to turn" is לִפנוֹת - lifnot

Exercise – write the following in hebrew:

They (fem.) turn to street Ben Yehuda. הֵן פוֹנוֹת לֵרֵחוֹב בֵן יֵהוּדַה listen
We (mixed) want to learn to dance in school. אַנַחנוּ רוֹצִים לִלמוֹד לִרקוֹד בֵבֵית סֵפֵר listen
You (sing. fem.) buy many apples, and he buys a bit of oranges. אַת קוֹנַה הַרבֵה תַפוּחִים, וֵהוּא קוֹנֵה קצַת תַפוּזִים listen
They (mixed) build a new house. הֵם בוֹנִים בַית חַדַש listen
He drinks tea ([te]), and she drinks coffee ([cafe]) הוּא שוֹתֵה תֵה, וֵהִיא שוֹתַה קַפֵה listen

9.b Numbers

We kept using feminine numbers for a while, now it's time to learn masculine as well. They are mostly formed by attaching [a], occasionally with a minor vowel change:

  • 3 - שלוֹשַה - [shlosha] (cf. fem. [shalosh])
  • 4 - אַרבַעַה - [arbaa] (fem. [arba])
  • 5 - חַמִישַה - [khamisha] (fem. [khamesh])
  • 6 - שִישַה - [shisha] (fem. [shesh])
  • 7 - שִבעַה - [shiva] (fem. [sheva])
  • 8 - שמוֹנַה - [shmona] (fem. [shmone])
  • 9 - תִשעַה - [tisha] (fem. [tesha])

Today we'll also learn the adjectives:

הַבַא [haba] next
קוֹדֵם, הַקוֹדֵם [kodem, hakodem]* previous
These go especially well with the noun:
רֵגַע (m.) [rega] moment

To practice:

He was standing in a supermarket, and in next moment – he was running away! הוּא עַמַד בֵסוּפֵר, וֵבֵרֵגַע הַבַא - הוּא בַרַח! listen
In this room (it's) very hot, 34, I (masc.) drink every minute, every moment. בֵחֵדֵר הַזֵה חַם מֵאוֹד, שלוֹשִים וֵאַַרבַע, אַנִי שוֹתֵה כל דַקַה, כל רֵגַע. listen
Seven apples and eight oranges – (are) heavier than watermelon. שִבעַה תַפוּחִים וֵשמוֹנַה תַפוּזים - יוֹתר כבֵדִים מֵאַבַטִיחַ. listen

9.c Nouns & Adjectives

Today we'll learn 3 adjectives of XaXiX structure:
טַעִים [taim] tasty
מַהִיר [mahir] fast
בַרִיא [bari] healthy

And 3 drinks:

מַיִם (m. plural) [maim] water
חַלַב (m.) [khalav] milk
מִיץ (m.) [mitz] juice

All right, we learned some shortened forms of בֵ, לֵ, שֵל, אֵת (like – בוֹ, שֵלִי..), let's learn one more – the 'we' form. For that, one adds [anu] (regardless of gender):

בַנוּ banu in us
לַנוּ lanu to us
שֵלַנוּ shelanu our, ours, of us
אוֹתַנוּ otanu us (as object pronoun, for transitive verbs)

Finally, let's learn 3 nouns of the XiXuX pattern:

שִיעוּר (m.) [shiur] lesson
סִיפוּר (m.) [sipur] story
קִיצוּר (m.) [kitzur] shortcut*
(*)A useful expression: 'בֵקִיצוּר' [bekitzur]'in short'

Exercise – write in hebrew, pronounce and compare to the recorded version:

I (fem.) drink tea, but I don't drink coffee. I eat watermelon 3 times in week, I like him a lot. אַנִי שוֹתַה תֵה, אַבַל אַנִי לא שוֹתַה קַפֵה. אַנִי אוֹכֵלֵת אַבַטִיחַ שלוֹשַה פַעַמִים בֵשַבוּעַ, אַנִי אוֹהֵבֵת אוֹתוֹ מֵאוֹד listen
Son, today you have a fast lesson. Did you learn well in the previous week? בֵן, הַיוֹם יֵש לֵךַ שִיעוּר מַהִיר. אַתַה לַמַדתַ טוֹב בֵשִיעוּר הַקוֹדֵם?. listen
I know to create a fast dish - but she is healthy and very tasty! אַנִי יוֹדֵעַ לִיצוֹר מַנַה מַהִירַה - אַבַל הִיא ברִיאַה וֵמֵאוֹד טַעִימַה! listen
I (fem.) buy in this super 3 times in week, but in the next week we (mixed) buy less. אַנִי קוֹנַה בֵסוּפֵר הַזֵה שלוֹשַה פַעַמִים בֵשַבוּע, אַבַל בֵשַבוּעַ הַבַא אַנַחנוּ קוֹנִים פַחוֹת. listen
Then.. yesterday in morning, I (masc.) wore my shirt, I sit in my room.. I drink my coffee, and I think to myself.. In short – I love you (fem.)! אַז.. אֵתמוֹל בֵבוקֵר, אַנִי לַבַשתִי אֵת הַחוּלצַה שֵלִי, אַנִי יוֹשֵב בֵחֵדֵר שֵלִי.. אַנִי שוֹתֵה אֵת הַקַפֵה שֵלִי, וֵאַנִי חוֹשֵב לִי.. בֵקִיצוּר - אַנִי אוֹהֵב אוֹתַך!. listen
Milk (is) white, tea is black or green, coffee is black (or white, when there's in him some milk). חַלַב לַבַן, תֵה שַחוֹר אוֹ יַרוֹק, קַפֵה שַחוֹר (אוֹ לַבַן, כשֵיֵש בוֹ קצַת חַלַב). listen
Apples juice (in hebrew it's literally 'juice apples') is green, oranges juice is yellow, water (are) white. מִיץ תַפוּחִים יַרוֹק, מִיץ תַפוּזִים צַהוֹב, מַיִם לַבַנִים. listen

9.d Sentences

As always, we need a wh-question:

אֵיך [eykh] how

Great, let's have three useful words – the last for the day:

אוּלַי [ulay] maybe
אַחַרֵי [akharey] after
גַם [gam] too, also

Final exercise of the day!! Translate the dialogues without writing, and listen:
On street

- You (masc.) want to buy milk? listen
- But you (fem.) know that i don't drink milk! listen
- I know, i know, you drink your gin and tonic, every day.. listen
And what, you think that it's good to you, it's healthy?? listen
- I know that it's not, but.. All right, how much to buy? listen
- Not a lot, a little. Only to us - to me and to our son. listen
- Good. Do you (fem.) know where is here a supermarket, nearby? listen
- Yes. You walk in this street, and in next street you turn - and it (is) there. listen
- Ok. Where are you going now? listen
- I'm taking the boy to school, he has (a) lesson (of) music. And after it - i'm going to our home. listen
- Very good. Bye! listen

In super

- Shalom. listen
- Shalom to you (fem.) too! listen
- I want to buy 3 apples and 4 oranges. (*note the masc.) listen
- Very good. One minute. Here they (are). 6 shekels. Only this? listen
- Emm.. no, i want also (a) watermelon. listen
- How (do) you want him? Big or small? listen
- Small. listen
- Ok, 7 shekels. And?.. listen
- And..Maybe.. Liter (of) milk. listen
- 5 shekels. And..? listen
- And.. Do you have a newspaper, of today? listen
- Yes. 8 shekels. And?.. listen
- No, thanks, that's already good. listen

7 comments:

  1. What happend to your audio files, smiling, are you going to add them or did you abandon the project. Anyway, great job, thanks a lot !

    ReplyDelete
  2. Yeah, I have the same question... I've had problems listening to some of the recordings for a number of the sentences in the last couple/few lessons. I hope this gets fixed soon! In spite of a few problems, I think this is a GREAT resource!! TODAH RABAH for making this available to everyone on the Internet!!! :D

    ReplyDelete
  3. I have been studying Hebrew for a exile now and this course is really helping me. Thank you so much.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Me again. My corrector played a trick on me. that should read "for a while".

      Delete
  4. Hey guys! Since this blog is kinda dead, I tried to make at least this online course on Memrise, making lessons with the vocabulary and some drills using conjugated verb forms.
    Check it out, especially if you have trouble like me quickly remembering the vocab and conjugating verbs: http://www.memrise.com/course/375474/learn-hebrew-easily-blogspot-courses-vocab/

    ReplyDelete
  5. Thank you very much for this great site. Really appreciate how you present and later re-enforce a constantly changing mix of topics.

    Also VERY helpful how you intentionally use somewhat strange English sentences to get the reader to think and express ideas in a Hebrew/Semitic way. This is a very important point that many "logical" presentations miss completely.

    Also, thank you for well thought-out examples - the slightly goofy words in the early lessons make the material more colorful and easier to remember.

    GREAT SITE!

    ReplyDelete