7.c Numbers, Nouns & Adjectives
7.a: AlphabetAnd the last letters!
- שׂ - [s], as in 'summer'. We learned this letter as 'sh' sound, and almost always it is, but on very few occasions it also serves as 's', and is pronounced same as ס. Whenever the letter sounds as [s] - it's denoted by a dot above it, on its left side.
- ט - [t], as in 'to'. Pronounced same as ת. Almost always 't' is written using ת, however – words of foreign origin, like 'television, internet' and so on, use ט.
Read the following words: אִינטֵרנֵט, טַאבוּ, טַניַה, טרוֹמבוֹן, ווֹקִי-טוֹקִי, קוֹנצֵרט, אוֹטוֹבוּס (bus), אוֹטוֹ (car), אוּנִיבֵרסִיטַה, טֵקסט,
Let's learn 2 more verbs:
- the root נסע [n.g.?.] means 'go in a vehicle'.
- the root נגע [n.s.?.] means 'touch'
Now we'll learn a very useful expression:
- יֵש – [yesh] – there is, there are.
- אֵין – [eyn] – there isn't, there is no, there aren't.
- יֵש לֵאַדַם כַדוּר – [yesh leadam kadur] – lit. "there is to Adam ball", meaning “Adam has a ball”.
- יֵש לִי סֵפֵר – [yesh li sefer] – lit. there is to me book – I have a book.
- אֵין לוֹ חַתוּל – [eyn lo hatul] – lit. there isn't to him cat – he has no cat.
Great, now let's add two more verbs:
- the root ידע [y.d.?.] means 'know'.
- the root שמע [sh.m.?.] means 'hear'
There is a slight exception in singular present form of all verbs that have either 'ע' or 'ח' as their third root-consonant (like all 4 of this lesson): instead of the expected
- יוֹדֵע – [yode] – knows, in masc.
- יוֹדֵעֵת – [yodeet] – knows, in fem.
- יוֹדֵעַ – [yodea] – knows, in masc.
- יוֹדַעַת – [yodaat] – knows, in fem.
- בוֹרֵחַ – [boreakh](*) – runs away, in masc.
- בוֹרַחַת – [borakhat] – runs away, in fem.
All right, and the last bit for the part: We learned already how to say 'my,his,her'. To say 'your' (or 'to you', 'in you') – you add [kha] if it belongs to masculine noun, and [akh] if it' belongs to feminine noun:
- סֵפֵר שֵלךַ – [sefer shelha] – your (masc.) book.
- כֵלֵב שֵלַך – [kelev shelah] – your (fem.) dog.
- יֵש לֵךַ – [yesh leha] – you (masc.) have.
- אֵין לַך – [yesh leha] – you (fem.) don't have.
- אַנִי נוֹגֵעַ בַך – [eyn lah] – I (masc.) touch in you (fem.) (in hebrew you say 'touch in').
Exercise time - translate and listen:
|I (fem.) go in autobus to your (masc.) city.||אַנִי נוֹסַעַת בֵאוֹטוֹבוּס לֵעִיר שֵלךַ||listen|
|(Do) you (fem.) know that I (masc.) know 6 fairytales?||אַת יוֹדַעַת שֵאַנִי יוֹדֵעַ שֵש אַגַדוֹת?||listen|
|I have 3 ice-creams, and you (masc.) have 4 ice-creams.||לִי יֵש שַלוֹש גלִידוֹת, וֵלֵךַ יֵש אַרבַע גלִידוֹת||listen|
|But you (fem.) said that you have 2 lovers! No, I (did) not say, and I don't have 2 lovers.||אַבַל אַת אַמַרת שֵיֵש לַך שתֵי מֵאַהֵבִים! לא, לא אַמַרתִי, וֵאֵין לִי שתֵי מֵאַהֵבִים.||listen|
|I (masc.) say to you (fem.) and you hear. No, I (fem.) say to you (masc.) and you hear!||אַנִי אוֹמֵר לַך וֵאַת שוֹמַעַת. לא, אַנִי אוֹמֵרֵת לֵךַ וֵאַתַה שוֹמֵעַ!||listen|
7.c Numbers, Nouns & AdjectivesWe'll learn more adjectives today:
|יַפֵה||[yafe]||nice, beautiful, pretty|
|קַטַן||[katan]||small, little (opposite of גַדוֹל)|
Today we'll speak a lot about numbers. So, first of all, we have to learn:
- 10 - עֵשׂר - [eser]
Now, how do we construct tens? We add the plural ending of [im], like one adds 'ty' in english:
- 30 - שלוֹשִים - [shloshim]([a] is omitted, because [shaloshim] sounds too clumsy)
- 40 - אַרבַעִים - [arbaim]
- 20 - עֵשׂרִים - [esrim]
It's natural to speak about age now. This couldn't be any easier: “I am 8 years old” is in hebrew, literally: “I son 8”: אַנִי בֵן שמוֹנֵה – [ani ben shmone]. And how to ask one's age? We need to learn the word:
- כַמַה - [kama] - how much
Well, i'm 27, so how do I say that? All the composed numbers, starting from 20, are of same format: 'tens and ones'. That is:
- 27 - עֵשׂרִים וֵשֵבַע – [esrim vesheva] – twenty and seven
- 33 - שלוֹשִים וֵשַלוֹש – [shloshim veshalosh] – thirty and three
- 46 - אַַרבַעִים וֵשֵש – [arbaim veshesh] – forty and six
Fantastic, let's get some nouns, and be back to numbers:
How do you ask “what time is it?” Simply “what (is) the hour?” - מַה הַשַעַה – [ma hashaa?] And the answer? As in english:
|3:20||שַלוֹש עֵשׂרִים||[esrim vesheva]||listen|
|5:45||חַמֵש אַַרבַעִים וֵחַמֵש||[khamesh arbaim vekhamesh]||listen|
|4:30||אַַרבַע וֵחֵצִי||[arba vekhetzi]||listen|
And by the way - if you got your answer, it's nice to reply:
- תוֹדַה - [toda] - thanks
Exercise – write in hebrew, pronounce and compare to the recorded version:
|My dog is little and beautiful, but strong. And his?||הַכֵלֵב שֵלִי קַטַן וֵיַפֵה, אַבַל חַזַק. וֵשֵלוֹ?||listen|
|Mine – big and beautiful, but weak.||שֵלִי - גַדוֹל וֵיַפֵה, אַבַל חַלַש.||listen|
|What time is it? It's 3:25.||מַה הַשַעַה? שַלוֹש עֵשׂרִים וֵחַמֵש||listen|
|How old is he? I don't know, but I think that he is 28.||בֵן כַמַה הוּא? אַנִי לא יוֹדֵעַ, אַבַל אַנִי חוֹשֵב שֵהוּא בֵן עֵשׂרִים וֵשמוֹנהֵTO CORRECT.||listen|
|I know that more than twenty five, but less than thirty.||אַנִי יוֹדֵעַ שֵיוֹתֵר מֵעֵשׂרִים וֵחַמֵש, אַבַל פַחוֹת מֵשלוֹשִים||listen|
|My house is 40 years old; he is older than her house.||בַית שֵלִי בֵן אַרבַעִים; הוּא יוֹתֵר יַשַן מֵבַית שֵלַה||listen|
|He is good, very strong and beautiful. He is white, and her is red.||הוּא טוֹב, מֵאוֹד יַפֵה וֵחַזַק. הוּא לַבַן, וֵשֵלַה אַדוֹם.||listen|
|But my street is newer than her, and her street is bad – he (is) very small.||אַבַל הַרֵחוֹב שֵלִי יוֹתֵר חַדַש מֵשֵלַה, וֵרֵחוֹב שֵלַה רַע - הוּא מֵאוֹד קַטַן.||listen|
Pronounce, without writing (and check yourself), the following time:
It's about time for a wh-question:
- מַתַי - [matay] - when?
And three useful words to finish the day:
Final exercise of the week!! Translate the dialogues without writing, and listen: - I (masc.) drive from Tel Aviv to Haifa in my car, and you (fem.)? - Hey, Dan, that (is) not good! I go in bus. listen - How many hours this (is)? - Hour and half in morning, hour and ten in night. listen - But Dana, that (is) a lot! - Ok, but when I (am) in bus, I read book. listen - What (do) you read? - It's new book, of Dan Brown. listen - Hey, and (do) you think that its good book? - Emm.. it's not very good, but it's not very bad.. (Did) you already read the book? listen - A month ago. But I didn't like the book. listen
- Hey, Adam! - Dina?? (Is) this you?? listen - This (is) me. How many years (of not seeing..)?! Where (are) you, where (is) your home? - I'm in Tel-Aviv, in street Allenby. And you? listen - I'm in Yaffo. I study in university Tel-Aviv. - Nice! It's not far from me. What do you study? listen - Well, I study arabic (עַרַבִית - [aravit]) and english (אַנגלִית - [anglit]), and you? - I study music (מוּזִיקַה – [muzica]). Hey, I like this red cloth that you wear! Where (is) he from? listen - My friend created this cloth, and sold me. - He's very pretty. It sits well. listen - Thanks. What time is it, Adam? - Emm.. 8:20. listen - Already?? I'm going.. Bye, Adam! - Bye Dina. listen
- Michael, (are) we going to concert? - Why, what time is it, Helen? listen - It's already 7:40! - But Helen, it's 4 streets (blocks) from here.. listen - No Michael, it's not 4 streets, it's half city! - Well.. (are) we riding in auto or going (in this context – walking)? listen - Going, it's beautiful night today - Ok.. listen - What ok..? You told me “ok” 5 minutes ago! And 10 minutes ago you said “ok”! - All right, all right.. What (do) I wear? listen - What you wore yesterday, the black cloth. - Where is he? listen - There, in room. - I'm in room , and there isn't black cloth here.. listen - What?? - No, I was (kidding) laughing, it's here. listen - You.. listen