Sunday, August 1, 2010

Lesson 6





Contents:

         6.a Alphabet
         6.b Verbs
         6.c Nouns & Adjectives
         6.d Sentences

6.a: Alphabet

There we go with two more consonants:
  • ע - that's a no-sound letter. Just as א, it's either used as a dummy-consonant for a vowel, or for archaic reasons.
  • צ - zz,ts, as in 'pizza' or 'its'.

    It has a final form – ץ.

Now let's read and then listen:

פִיצַה listen
עַמוֹק listen
מַצַה listen
פַעַר listen
קַצֵה listen
צֵלסִיוּס listen
מַעַן listen
בֵיצַה listen


6.b Verbs

Let's have 3 more verbs:

  • the root צחק (tz.kh.k.) means 'laugh'. By the way, the name Itzhak means “laughing”
  • the root יצר (y.tz.r.) means 'create'
  • the root עמד (?.m.d.) means 'stand'

We know all pronouns, present&past forms, so it's time for prepositions:

  • עַלalon, atop. It also means about
  • עִםimwith
Third preposition, אֵת - et, is not used in english – it's used in transitive verbs, and indicates that following noun is a subject to which the action applies, target of the action, and not the object which applies the action. For example, in the sentence 'Dan asks Adam', Dan is the one performing the action, and Adam is the one on whom the action is applied. How do we know? Because of the order, 'Adam asks Dan' would reverse the roles. In hebrew one adds the preposition:

דַן שוֹאֵל אֵת אַדַםdan shoel et adam.
That way you can change the word order, and it still means the same “Dan asks Adam”:
אֵת אַדַם שוֹאֵל דַןet adam shoel dan – lit. “ET/To/The Adam asks Dan”
Some more examples:
  • דַנַה אוֹהֵבֵת אֵת אַדַםdana ohevet et adam – Dana loves Adam (I know we've been saying it until now without 'et', but it wasn't 100% correct. Now we got it all fixed!)
  • אַנִי הוֹרֵס אֵת הַבַיתani hores et habayt – I destroy the house.

  • אַנִי לוֹבֵש אֵת הַבֵגֵדani lovesh et habeged – I wear the cloth.

  • אַנִי בוֹדֵק אֵת הַגַןani bodek et hagan – I check the garden.

  • אַנִי סוֹגֵר אֵת הַחֵדֵרani soger et hakheder – I close the room.

But does one always use it? No, only when the noun is definite (it comes with 'the', or is obviously specified – using a name, or pronoun). When the noun is indefinite - you say it as you used to, without 'et': אַנִי סוֹגֵר חֵדֵר - ani soger kheder – I close a room.

Great, let's add three more verbs and start practicing:

  • the root מצא (m.tz.!.) means 'find'.
  • the root יצא (y.tz.!.) means 'leave, exit, go out'
  • the root קרא (k.r.!.) means 'read', but also “call someone”, (for real, not on phone)

Read aloud, translate and then listen. Note when there is or isn't 'את', and every time ask yourself why:

אַנִי מַצַאתִי כַדוּר listen
אַנִי מַצַאתִי אֵת הַכַדוּר שֵל דַן listen
דַנַה עִם דִינַה צַחקוּ עַל אַדַם listen
אַנִי יַצַרתִי גלִידַה וֵאַתַה אַכַלתַ אֵת הַגלִידַה listen
אַנִי עוֹמֵד עַל הַבַמַה, וֵאַת יוֹצֵאת מֵהַבַית listen
אַנִי קַרַאתִי הַרבֵה ספַרִים, אַַבַל אַנַי אוֹהֵב מֵאוֹד אֵת הַסֵפֵר "מוֹבִי דִיק" listen
אַנִי קַרַאתִי לֵבֵן, וֵהוּא הַלַך לֵבַית listen

And now translate, without writing, and check your pronunciation:

I sat on the stage. listen
You (masc.) stood on the stage. listen
You (fem.) loved the stage. listen
He exited from stage. listen
She went to stage. listen
We remembered the stage. listen
You (plural masc.) sold the stage. listen
You (plural fem.) thought about the stage. listen
They (fem.) destroyed the stage. listen
They (masc.) fell from the stage. listen
I wrote about the stage. listen
She read about the stage. listen

6.c Nouns & Adjectives

We need more adjectives (again – note the common pattern, this time it's XaXeX):
שַמֵן shamen fat listen
רַזֵה raze skinny, opposite of fat listen
קַשֵה kashe difficult listen
כַבֵד kaved heavy listen
קַל kal easy, light - opposite of the 2 words above listen

Now, how do you say 'my, his, to her”? All prepositions in hebrew can attach suffixes that point to the pronoun. Today we'll learn 3 forms (I,he,she) on 3 prepositions (of,to,in):

  • I: you add the sound 'i':
    שֵלִי sheli my, mine
    לִי li to me
    בִי bi in me
  • He: you add the sound 'o':
    שֵלוֹ shelo his
    לוֹ lo to him
    בוֹ bo in him
  • She: you add the sound 'a':
    שֵלַה shela her
    לַה la to her
    בַה ba in her

And 4 more numbers (in their fem. form):

4 אַרבַע arba listen
7 שֵבַע sheva listen
8 שמוֹנֵה shmone listen
9 תֵשַע tesha listen

And of course, we need nouns:

עִיר (m.) ir city listen
רֵחוֹב (m.) rekhov street listen
עֵץ (m.) etz tree listen
מַחשֵב (m.) makhshev computer listen
שַעַה (f.) shaa hour listen

Exercise – write in hebrew, pronounce and compare to the recorded version (note - some nouns below are masculin and we're using feminine form for numbers. it's not very nice of us, but we'll get over it in a couple of lessons):

I learn 8 hours in day. אַנִי לוֹמֵד שמוֹנֵה שַעוֹת בֵיוֹם listen
In this street (are) many green trees. בֵרֵחוֹב זֵה הַרבֵה עֵצִים יַרוֹקִים listen
Where (to) you go? To street Hashalom, in my city. (Is) This far? No, this (is) not far, this (is) very close. לֵאַן אַתַה הוֹלֵך? לֵרֵחוֹב הַשַלוֹם, בֵעִיר שֵלִי. זֵה רַחוֹק? לא, זֵה לא רַחוֹק, זֵה מֵאוֹד קַרוֹב listen
I like books more than computer. I (do) not read from computer, and I read many books. אֵנִי אוֹהֵב ספַרִים יוֹתֵר מֵמַחשֵבִים. אַנִי לא קוֹרֵא מֵמַחשֵב, וֵאַנִי קוֹרֵא הַרבֵה ספַרִים listen
Dog (is) heavier than cat, but (is) lighter than boy. Fat dog (is) heavier than skinny dog. כֵלֵב יוֹתֵר כַבֵד מֵחַתוּל, אַבַל יוֹתֵר קַל מֵיֵלֵד. כֵלֵב שַמֵן יוֹתֵר כַבֵד מֵכֵלֵב רַזֵה listen
In this room (are) 5 (female) cats: 2 (are) fat, and 3 (are) skinny. בֵחֵדֵר זֵה חַמֵש חַתוּלוֹת: שתַיִם שמֵנוֹת, וֵשַלוֹש רַזוֹת listen
I (did) not read the book, because he is very difficult. אַנִי לא קַרַאתִי אֵת הַסֵפֵר, כִי הוּא מֵאוֹד קַשֵה listen

Pronounce, without writing (and check yourself), the following numbers (digit by digit):

472 listen
894 listen
723 listen
897 listen
23456789 listen

6.d Sentences

Three useful words to finish the day:

כל kol every listen
אַז az then listen
כשֵ kshe when(*) listen
(*)when, but not as a question! As in “when I did it, I was drunk”. This word, even though it's of 2 letters, is attached to the following word, for example:כשֵהוּא אַמַר לִי, אַז יַצַאתִי מֵהַחֵדֵרkshehu amar li, az yatzati mehaheder – when he told me, then I exited from the room

Now, final exercise of the lesson – write the sentences in hebrew:

I (masc.) learn hebrew (עִברִיתivrit) every day, and this (is) not easy – this (is) very difficult! אַנִי לוֹמֵד עִברִית כל יוֹם, וֵזֵה לא קַל - זֵה מֵאוֹד קַשֵה! listen
When she wears her black cloth, then I say to her that she (is) like madonna. כשֵהִיא לוֹבֵשֵת אֵת הַבֵגֵד הַשַחוֹר שֵלַה, אַז אַנִי אוֹמֵר לַה שֵהִיא כמוֹ מַדוֹנַה. listen
I love the fairytale, (it) she (is) very simple. I read the fairytale with my little son every year. אַנִי אוֹהֵב אֵת הַאַגַדַה, הִיא מֵאוֹד פשוּטַה. אַנִי קוֹרֵא אֵת הַאַגַדַה עִם הַבֵן הַקַטַן שֵלִי כל שַנַה. listen
When the dog left from the street and went to house, then the (male) cat descended from the tree, and laughed about the dog. כשֵהַכֵלֵב יַצַא מֵהַרֵחוֹב וֵהַלַך לֵבַית, אַז הַחַתוּל יַרַד מֵהַעֵץ וֵצַחַק עַל הַכֵלֵב listen
Yesterday I found a white ball, and today my dog and cat destroyed the ball. אֵתמוֹל מַצַאתִי כַדוּר לַבַן, וֵהַיוֹם כֵלֵב שֵלִי וֵחַתוּל שֵלִי הַרסוּ אֵת הַכַדוּר. listen
When I sit in my room, I check email every hour. כשֵאַנִי יוֹשֵב בֵחֵדֵר שֵלִי, אַנִי בוֹדֵק אִימֵייל כל שַעַה. listen
This dog (is) very fat, he (is) (as) heavy as (a) tree. כֵלֵב זֵה מֵאוֹד שַמֵן, הוּא שַמֵן כמוֹ עֵץ. listen

15 comments:

  1. אֵת - et, indicates that following noun is a subject to which the action applies, target of the action, and not the object which applies the action. - I think you mean you mixed the words subject and object by accident, subject acts, objects is the target.

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  2. It IS difficult but very rewarding. Keep it up, it's the best material I have come across. Thanks :)

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  3. Difficult....didn't get the "et" thing.....but again ..good job...xoxo

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  4. very nice examples that help me improve my hebrew, thank you very much:-)

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  5. I'm still having problem with ET although I tried to learn how to use it from lots of different resources. ET always comes after Ha???

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  6. I think this site is great, it has helped me a lot.

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  7. what's the word sixth line down on the 6.b section, in the writing in Hebrew where one of the letters is denoted with a circle?

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  8. Can someone explain how come in 6C 3rd one down, it is 'lean' and not 'eyfo', because I thought 'eyfo' was a location, and 'lean' direction? Also, I am VERY confused about when 'ze/zot' comes before or after the noun? Thankyou!

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  9. thanks. enjoying the journey of learning hebrew.

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  10. Hey guys! Since this blog is kinda dead, I tried to make at least this online course on Memrise, making lessons with the vocabulary and some drills using conjugated verb forms.
    Check it out, especially if you have trouble like me quickly remembering the vocab and conjugating verbs: http://www.memrise.com/course/375474/learn-hebrew-easily-blogspot-courses-vocab/

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  11. פשוּטַה
    I don't remember having learned the word "simple". What is the prononciation? I thought it was reffering to the word "easy"...

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  12. This is an informative post. Second language learning refers to the learning of a new language besides the native language. There are many second language learning theories that aim to explain the way second language is learnt and which approach is the best. Thanks for the nice post.
    Spanish school Costa Rica

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  13. אני אוהב עברת אני לומד כל יום

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